The recent outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international public health emergency.

We know that research during this pandemic has been presented with significant challenges including institutional regulations to mitigate spread and heavy demand for reagents focused on COVID-19 investigation.

This resource page highlights key products and resources for your COVID-19 research.

NOTE: Products from GoldBio are intended for research use only. It is not to be used for diagnostic purposes

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Viral Structure

SARS-CoV-2 is a corona type virus – the name coming from the appearance of a halo around the virion under electron microscope.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Viral Structure illustration showing protein envelope and spike proteins - for COVID-19 Testing and detection

The virus is protected by its viral envelope, with exterior spike proteins that are responsible for cellular receptor binding. Within the virus is a nucleocapsid encapsulating the single-stranded RNA that contains the viral genome.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Viral structure - interior cross section view showing RNA and Nucleocapsid - for COVID-19 Testing and detection



SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Transmission

Transmission of thevirus occurs through respiratory droplets emitted from sneezing, coughing, talking and breathing. These droplets consist of water, cells and virus (in the case of a COVID-19 infected person).

The droplets can remain in the air in the form of a turbulent gas cloud and land on other surfaces. Droples in a turbulent gas cloud can avoid evaporation and remain in the air for a longer period of time than expected. Viral particles that land on surfaces have different lifespans depending on the type of surface particles land on.

This chart summarizes the supposed lifetime the SARS-CoV-2virus has on surfaces. However, information is evolving, and lifetime on surfaces also depends on environmental conditions.

Table showing how long SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Virus lives on different types of surfaces - for COVID-19 Testing

Source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/how-long-covid-19-lives-on-surfaces

Entry of the coronavirus into the body can occur through the eyes, nose and mouth, which is why frequent hand-washing and proper use of masks are emphasized.



SARS-CoV-2 Cellular Entry

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) molecular illustration of the spike protein - for SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 Testing

The SARS-CoV-2 virus gains entry into the cell when the virus’ spike protein hijacks a cellular receptor called the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, or ACE2. This receptor is part of the renin-angiotensin pathway that regulates vascular homeostasis. ACE2 is responsible for lowering blood pressure by catalyzing the cleavage of angiotensin II, which is a vasoconstrictor, into angiotensin 1-7, vasodilator).

The ACE2 receptors are present in cells within several organs including the lungs, heart, kidney and liver. However the receptor has been shown in greater quantities on the membranes of alveolar cells.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Illustration of viral entry into the cell by binding to the ACE2 receptor - For SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 Testing and detection


The receptor-binding domain of the virus is found on the spike protein. Once bound to ACE2, the virus loses its protein shell upon entry, delivering its genomic RNA. Viral RNA then uses the host cell’s endoplasmic reticulum for reproduction.



Viral Protein Research Products

IPTG

Catalog ID Size Pricing
I2481C 1 g $ 18.00
I2481C5 5 g $ 29.00
I2481C25 25 g $ 121.00
I2481C50 50 g $ 194.00
I2481C100 100 g $ 367.00
I2481C200 200 g $ 709.00
I2481C300 300 g $ 944.00
I2481C400 400 g $ 1,227.00
I2481C500 500 g $ 1,478.00

Description

IPTG is an analog of galactose that is non-metabolizable and inactivates the lac repressor to induce synthesis of β-galactosidase in E. coli. The expression of cloned genes under the control of the lac operon is induced by IPTG. It is also a substrate for thigalactoside transacetylase and has been reported to induce penicillinase in bacteria.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID I2481
CAS # 367-93-1
MW 238.30 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store desiccated at -20°C. Protect from light.
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I2481C 1 g $ 18.00
I2481C5 5 g $ 29.00
I2481C25 25 g $ 121.00
I2481C50 50 g $ 194.00
I2481C100 100 g $ 367.00
I2481C200 200 g $ 709.00
I2481C300 300 g $ 944.00
I2481C400 400 g $ 1,227.00
I2481C500 500 g $ 1,478.00

IPTG EZ Pak™ for 1 M Solution

Catalog ID Size Pricing
I2481-EZ10 10 mL $ 61.00
I2481-EZ50 50 mL $ 97.00
I2481-EZ100 100 mL $ 158.00

Description

The IPTG EZ Pak™ is the fastest and easiest way to make a set amount of sterile IPTG solution. The kit includes preweighed IPTG powder, a sterile filter, and a sterile container for the filtered solution. No need to calculate, simply add the stated amount of deionized H2O, filter, and pour into the labeled bottle for easy usage. The EZ Pak™ includes high quality GoldBio IPTG and the sterile solution is ready for tissue culture, bacterial media, or any other appropriate use.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID I2481-EZ
CAS # 367-93-1
MW 238.30 g/mol
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I2481-EZ10 10 mL $ 61.00
I2481-EZ50 50 mL $ 97.00
I2481-EZ100 100 mL $ 158.00

RNase A, >70 U/mg

There is no image for RNase A, >70 U/mg RNase A, >70 U/mg
Catalog ID Size Pricing
R-050-50 50 mg $ 42.00
R-050-100 100 mg $ 76.00
R-050-500 500 mg $ 173.00
R-050-1 1 g $ 260.00
R-050-5 5 g $ 1,146.00
R-050-10 10 g $ 2,236.00

Description

RNase A, isolated from bovine pancreas, degrades single-stranded RNA at the C and U residues; therefore, RNase A is pyrimidine specific. Degradation occurs by cleaving the phosphodiester bond located between the 5’-ribose of the nucleotide and the phosphate group that is connected to the 3’-ribose of the neighboring pyrimidine.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID R-050
CAS # 9001-99-4
MW 13.7 kDa
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at -20°C.
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R-050-50 50 mg $ 42.00
R-050-100 100 mg $ 76.00
R-050-500 500 mg $ 173.00
R-050-1 1 g $ 260.00
R-050-5 5 g $ 1,146.00
R-050-10 10 g $ 2,236.00

Proteinase K Solution 20 mg/ml

Catalog ID Size Pricing
P-480-SL2 2 mL $ 44.00
P-480-SL4 4 mL (2 x 2 mL) $ 72.00
P-480-SL10 10 mL (5 x 2 mL) $ 152.00

Description

Proteinase K is a highly reactive nonspecific serine protease that belongs to the subtilisin family of proteins. It cleaves at the carboxylic acid side of aliphatic, aromatic, or hydrophobic amino acids. Proteinase K is capable of inactivating RNases and DNases and is used in the isolation or preparation of high molecular weight nucleic acids. Proteinase K is also useful for helping to characterize enzymes, due to its cleavage specificity. This enzyme was designated proteinase K because of its ability to hydrolyze keratin. Proteinase K is stable in a wide variety of detergents and buffer salts and at various temperatures and pH. The isoelectric point of proteinase K is 8.9.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID P-480-SL
CAS # 39450-01-6
MW 28.5 kDa
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
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P-480-SL2 2 mL $ 44.00
P-480-SL4 4 mL (2 x 2 mL) $ 72.00
P-480-SL10 10 mL (5 x 2 mL) $ 152.00

Proteinase K, RNase/DNase free

Catalog ID Size Pricing
P-480-100 100 mg $ 54.00
P-480-500 5 x 100 mg $ 173.00
P-480-1 1 g $ 215.00
P-480-2 2 x 1 g $ 415.00
P-480-3 3 x 1 g $ 615.00
P-480-4 4 x 1 g $ 810.00
P-480-5 5 x 1 g $ 1,005.00

Description

Proteinase K is a highly reactive nonspecific serine protease that belongs to the subtilisin family of proteins. It cleaves at the carboxylic acid side of aliphatic, aromatic, or hydrophobic amino acids. Proteinase K is capable of inactivating RNases and DNases and is used in the isolation or preparation of high molecular weight nucleic acids. Proteinase K is also useful for helping to characterize enzymes, due to its cleavage specificity. This enzyme was designated proteinase K because of its ability to hydrolyze keratin. Proteinase K is stable in a wide variety of detergents and buffer salts and at various temperatures and pH. The isoelectric point of proteinase K is 8.9.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID P-480
CAS # 39450-01-6
MW 28.5 kDa
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at -20°C.
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P-480-100 100 mg $ 54.00
P-480-500 5 x 100 mg $ 173.00
P-480-1 1 g $ 215.00
P-480-2 2 x 1 g $ 415.00
P-480-3 3 x 1 g $ 615.00
P-480-4 4 x 1 g $ 810.00
P-480-5 5 x 1 g $ 1,005.00

Nickel NTA Agarose Beads

There is no image for Nickel NTA Agarose Beads Nickel NTA Agarose Beads
Catalog ID Size Pricing
H-350-5 5 mL $ 62.00
H-350-10 10 mL $ 100.00
H-350-25 25 mL $ 218.00
H-350-50 50 mL $ 377.00
H-350-100 100 mL $ 712.00

Description

Nickel-NTA Agarose Resin has a binding capacity of ~50 mg/ml. In addition, it allows for purification of proteins under native or denaturing conditions. GoldBio Nickel Agarose works very well with the His-Tag Buffer Set.

NTA cross-linked Agarose resin consists of nitrilotriacetic acid groups ligated by stable ether linkages via a spacer arm. NTA is a tetravalent chelating agent, covalently coupled to cross-linked agarose beads, providing a higher specificity and lower ion leaching than IDA linked resins. NTA resins have also been shown to be more robust in the presence of higher concentrations of EDTA, but may require a higher imidazole concentration for protein elution. This resin is loaded with Ni 2+. The resulting, ready-to-use resin is ideal for rapid purifications of His-tagged proteins.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID H-350
Storage/Handling store at 4°C. Do NOT freeze.
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H-350-5 5 mL $ 62.00
H-350-10 10 mL $ 100.00
H-350-25 25 mL $ 218.00
H-350-50 50 mL $ 377.00
H-350-100 100 mL $ 712.00

Nickel NTA HTC Agarose Beads

There is no image for Nickel NTA HTC Agarose Beads Nickel NTA HTC Agarose Beads
Catalog ID Size Pricing
H-355-25 25 mL $ 287.00
H-355-100 100 mL $ 964.00
H-355-500 500 mL $ 4,144.00

Description

Nickel NTA HTC Agarose Resin has a binding capacity of ~60 mg/ml. In addition, it allows for purification of proteins under native or denaturing conditions. GoldBio Nickel Agarose works very well with the His-Tag Buffer Set.

NTA cross-linked Agarose resin consists of nitrilotriacetic acid groups ligated by stable ether linkages via a spacer arm. NTA is a tetravalent chelating agent, covalently coupled to cross-linked agarose beads, providing a higher specificity and lower ion leaching than IDA linked resins. NTA resins have also been shown to be more robust in the presence of higher concentrations of EDTA, but may require a higher imidazole concentration for protein elution. This resin is loaded with Ni 2+. The resulting, ready-to-use resin is ideal for rapid purifications of His-tagged proteins.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID H-355
Storage/Handling store at 4°C. Do NOT freeze.
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H-355-25 25 mL $ 287.00
H-355-100 100 mL $ 964.00
H-355-500 500 mL $ 4,144.00

Nickel NTA Magnetic Agarose Beads

There is no image for Nickel NTA Magnetic Agarose Beads Nickel NTA Magnetic Agarose Beads
Catalog ID Size Pricing
H-351-2 2 mL $ 100.00
H-351-5 5 mL $ 225.00
H-351-10 10 mL $ 408.00

Description

Nickel NTA Magnetic Agarose Beads are a rapid and easy small scale purification of histidine-tagged proteins. This resin consists of magnetic agarose derivatized with Nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and provides good properties working in native or denaturing conditions. Magnetic agarose beads provide a convenient and quick method for purification without the need for pipetting or centrifugation. Washing, binding and elution steps will require a magnetic device.

NTA cross-linked resins consist of nitrilotriacetic acid groups ligated by stable ether linkages via a spacer arm. NTA is a tetravalent chelating agent which provides a higher specificity and lower ion leaching than IDA linked resins. NTA resins have also been shown to be more robust in the presence of higher concentrations of EDTA, but may require a higher imidazole concentration for protein elution. This resin is loaded with Ni 2+. The resulting, ready-to-use resin is ideal for rapid purifications of His-tagged proteins.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID H-351
Storage/Handling store at 4°C. Do NOT freeze.
View
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H-351-2 2 mL $ 100.00
H-351-5 5 mL $ 225.00
H-351-10 10 mL $ 408.00

One Step RT-qPCR kit for SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19) Detection

There is no image for One Step RT-qPCR kit for SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19) Detection One Step RT-qPCR kit for SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19) Detection
Catalog ID Size Pricing
P-065-100 100 reactions $ 576.00
P-065-500 500 reactions $ 2,583.00

Description

The One Step RT-qPCR kit is used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The approach used for detection is by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The SARS-CoV-2 detection kit allows cDNA synthesis and qPCR in a single tube. The kit provides an improved RT-qPCR efficiency, wider dynamic range, superior sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the kit contains CDC recommended primers/probe sets for SARS-CoV-2 and can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens; such as sputum, nasopharyngeal, orophayringel aspirates, washes or swabs and tracheal aspirates.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID P-065
Storage/Handling Store the kit at -20°C.
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P-065-100 100 reactions $ 576.00
P-065-500 500 reactions $ 2,583.00

Probe-Based One Step RT-qPCR Kit

There is no image for Probe-Based One Step RT-qPCR Kit Probe-Based One Step RT-qPCR Kit
Catalog ID Size Pricing
P-055-200 200 reactions $ 206.00
P-055-500 500 reactions $ 439.00
P-055-1000 1000 reactions $ 773.00
P-055-5000 5000 reactions $ 3,439.00

Description

GoldBio’s Probe-Based One Step RT-qPCR Kit contains reverse transcriptase, Taq DNA polymerase, MgCl2, dNTPs, stabilizers, and low ROX reference dye with a proprietary buffer. It provides an improved qPCR efficiency, wider dynamic range, superior sensitivity and specificity.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID P-055
Storage/Handling ​Store the kit at -20°C.
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P-055-200 200 reactions $ 206.00
P-055-500 500 reactions $ 439.00
P-055-1000 1000 reactions $ 773.00
P-055-5000 5000 reactions $ 3,439.00

First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit

There is no image for First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit
Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-925-25 25 reactions  $ 95.00
D-925-100 100 reactions $ 315.00

Description

GoldBio's First Strand cDNA synthesis kit includes our 5x Master Mix which contains: Reverse Transcriptase, recombinant RNase inhibitor, dNTPs, an optimized buffer, MgCl2 and protein stabilizers. Reverse Transcriptase is a recombinant MMLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNase H activity and increased thermostability. The kit also provides two optimized primers and nuclease-free water. An anchored Oligo-dT primer forces the primer to anneal to the beginning of the polyA tail and the random hexamer primer mix provides random and consistent priming sites covering the entire RNA templates including both mRNAs and non-polyadenylated RNAs. The kit is highly efficient at producing full-length cDNA from long RNA templates at temperatures between 42-55ºC.

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D-925-25 25 reactions  $ 95.00
D-925-100 100 reactions $ 315.00




SARS-CoV-2 Highlighted Publications

COVID-19 Overview Papers

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions

COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses

Novel coronavirus COVID-19: an overview for emergency clinicians

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review of the Current Literature

Predicting the Future Trajectory of COVID-19


COVID-19 Structure, Interactions & Infection

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

Rigidity of the Outer Shell Predicted by a Protein Intrinsic Disorder Model Sheds Light on the COVID-19 (Wuhan-2019-nCoV) Infectivity

Evidence of the COVID-19 virus targeting the CNS: tissue distribution, host–virus interaction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms

COVID-19 Spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site prediction

Molecular basis of COVID-19 relationships in different species: a one health perspective

Structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and anti-COVID-19 drug discovery from medicinal plants

Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19

Managing cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Agility and collaboration toward a common goal

Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor

High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target

Biophysical characterization of the SARS-CoV2 spike protein binding with the ACE2 receptor explains increased COVID-19 pathogenesis

Single Cell RNA Sequencing Analysis of Human Kidney Reveals the Presence of ACE2 Receptor: A Potential Pathway of COVID-19 Infection

Crystal structure of the 2019-nCoV spike receptor-binding domain bound with the ACE2 receptor

Role of changes in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the interaction with the human ACE2 receptor: An in silico analysis

Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov

The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells

SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor

Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection



COVID-19 Treatment Studies

COVID-19: a recommendation to examine the effect of hydroxychloroquine in preventing infection and progression

Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)

Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic

Research and development on therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19 and related human coronavirus diseases

Insights from nanomedicine into chloroquine efficacy against COVID-19

Personalized workflow to identify optimal T-cell epitopes for peptide-based vaccines against COVID-19

Structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and anti-COVID-19 drug discovery from medicinal plants

Computers and viral diseases. Preliminary bioinformatics studies on the design of a synthetic vaccine and a preventative peptidomimetic antagonist against the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV, COVID-19) coronaviruses

Covid-19 infection and mortality-A physiologist's perspective enlightening clinical features and plausible interventional strategies

Focusing on the Unfolded Protein Response and Autophagy Related Pathways to Reposition Common Approved Drugs against COVID-19

Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19

COVID-19: a recommendation to examine the effect of hydroxychloroquine in preventing infection and progression


COVID-19 Detection

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

Identification of Coronavirus Isolated from a Patient in Korea with COVID-19

Diagnosing COVID-19: The Disease and Tools for Detection

Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases

Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19

Sensitivity of chest CT for COVID-19: comparison to RT-PCR

Combination of RT‐qPCR Testing and Clinical Features For Diagnosis of COVID‐19 facilitates management of SARS‐CoV‐2 Outbreak

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens

Improved molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 by the novel, highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction …

Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19

Time course of lung changes on chest CT during recovery from 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia

Chest CT findings in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): relationship to duration of infection

Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China


COVID-19 Transmission Research

COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses

COVID-19: Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Potential Fecal–Oral Transmission

The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records

Use of antiviral drugs to reduce COVID-19 transmission

Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada

Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19

Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records

Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study

Temperature significant change COVID-19 Transmission in 429 cities

Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts

The role of absolute humidity on transmission rates of the COVID-19 outbreak

How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?





References

American Society for Microbiology. (2020, January 31). 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Update: Uncoating the Virus. Retrieved April 7, 2020, from https://asm.org/Articles/2020/January/2019-Novel-C...

Bhargava, H. D. (2020, March 23). How Long Does the Coronavirus Live on Surfaces? Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://www.webmd.com/lung/how-long-covid-19-lives-on-surfaces

Biolution. (2020). Coronavirus Sars-CoV-2 structure. Retrieved from

Bourouiba, L. (2020). Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA.

Chartier, Y., & Pessoa-Silva, C. L. (2009). Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings. World Health Organization.

European Center for Disease Control. (2020, March 31). Q & A on COVID-19. Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/questions-answers

Goddard, T. (2020). How coronaviruses get into cells (Ucsf). Retrieved from

Lauer, S. A., Grantz, K. H., Bi, Q., Jones, F. K., Zheng, Q., Meredith, H. R., ... & Lessler, J. (2020). The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Annals of internal medicine.

Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of autoimmunity, 102433.

Tikellis, C., & Thomas, M. C. (2012). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key modulator of the renin angiotensin system in health and disease. International journal of peptides, 2012.

Verheije, M. H., Hagemeijer, M. C., Ulasli, M., Reggiori, F., Rottier, P. J., Masters, P. S., & de Haan, C. A. (2010). The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein is dynamically associated with the replication-transcription complexes. Journal of virology, 84(21), 11575-11579.

Zheng, Y. Y., Ma, Y. T., Zhang, J. Y., & Xie, X. (2020). COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 1-2.

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