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April 2013 Archive

Posted by unknown on April 22nd, 2013  ⟩  0 comments

Today is a great day to do something good for the environment, but we believe that it’s also important to consider how everyday business practices impact the world in which we live. I want to take this Earth Day to point out some of the sustainability initiatives we are taking on here at Goldbio, and show you how they not only reduce our carbon footprint, but they also save money.

GoldBio Sustainability

Ambient Ground Shipping – We ship our products at ambient temperature by default, making items that need to be shipped on ice the exception, rather than the other way around.  Shipping at ambient temperature allows us to skip out on the Styrofoam cooler and blue ice.  Furthermore, we can then ship them via FedEx and UPS ground, eliminating an airplane from the equation.  This drastically reduces the carbon footprint of each shipment, and it also saves our customers more than 80% in shipping costs.

Shipping Materials – Cardboard boxes: made from recycled materials and recyclable. Packing peanuts: made from recycled material and recyclable.  Our standard packing materials are sustainable.  Even though this doesn’t affect your purchase cost, it may help you sleep a little better.

Internal Efforts – Within the office, we also do our part in a number of small ways. This includes recycling everything that can be recycled, reusing old containers and other goods. Using a water fountain to refill cups and bottles, and using real utensils rather than disposable. 

You’ve heard me say many times that we look toward the future with hope, knowing that our products will be used in discovery that benefits all of us. We feel that anything we can do, big or small, to use less will save money and do a little extra for our future.

Category Code: 79105 88261

Posted by Chris on April 4th, 2013  ⟩  0 comments

The interleukin family of cytokines is one of the largest and most studied of all the growth factors. Their roles in disease, the immune system, and immune deficiency have made them superstars of cancer research and AIDS/HIV research, not to mention as possible, critical links in such diverse problems such as heart disease, neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s, arthritis and even Crohn’s disease. Interleukins are involved in processes of cell activation, cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The expression of interleukins is usually strictly regulated, i.e., the factors are often not secreted constitutively. They are most often synthesized after cell activation as a consequence of a physiological or non-physiological stimulus. There are also some interleukins which are autoregulatory and regulate their own synthesis or the expression of their own receptors.

Gold Bio is excited to now offer three interleukins (IL2, IL3 and IL4), recombinant from both human and murine sequence for your research needs! IL2 was the first of the interleukin family to be identified and characterized in the early 1980’s, though the existence of this family of growth factors was known for a few decades before that. IL2 is necessary for the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells to become 'effector' T cells. IL2 has been shown to be similar to IL15, but IL2 is instrumental in adaptive immunity and the development of the immunological memory, playing an important role in both regulatory T cells (Treg) development and function, whereas IL15 is more important in maintaining a highly specific T cell response.

IL3 is a popular cytokine in use for a variety of cell cultures (i.e. mast cells or basophils) providing the cytokinetic connection between the immune and hematopoietic systems. IL3 is capable of inducing the growth and differentiation of multi-potential hematopoietic stem cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, macrophages, lymphoid and erythroid cells. Haig, et al. recently showed a synergistic affect between IL3 and another growth factor, KITLG (sometimes called SCF or Stem Cell Factor), on both bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) and serosal/connective-tissue mast cells (CTMC).

IL4 is most closely associated with IL13 and induces native T helper (Th0) cells to become Th2 cells (which then produce more IL4). They are often produced during allergic responses and promote allergic inflammation by activation signal tranducers. IL4 actions are often “neutralized” by Inferon-gamma (IFN-ɣ), which is made by the Th1 cells. Gilbert, et al., showed that IL4 (as well as IL1) are involved in the response of annulus fibrosus (AF) cells derived from nondegenerative tissue to cyclic tensile strain.

If you have any questions about interleukins or any of our other available growth factors, you can contact us at: techsupport@goldbio.com!

 
 

Mahmud, Shawn A., Luke S. Manlove, and Michael A. Farrar. "Interleukin-2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and function." JAK-STAT 2.1 (2013): 0-1.

Haig, David M., et al. "Effects of stem cell factor (kit-ligand) and interleukin-3 on the growth and serine proteinase expression of rat bone-marrow-derived or serosal mast cells." Blood 83.1 (1994): 72-83.

Reddy, E. Premkumar, et al. "IL-3 signaling and the role of Src kinases, JAKs and STATs: a covert liaison unveiled." Oncogene 19.21 (2000): 2532-2547.

Gilbert, Hamish TJ, et al. "The involvement of interleukin-1 and interleukin-4 in the response of human annulus fibrosus cells to cyclic tensile strain: an altered mechanotransduction pathway with degeneration." Arthritis research & therapy 13.1 (2011): R8.

Category Code: 88221 79108

Posted by unknown on April 8th, 2013  ⟩  0 comments

With our new lineup of growth factors, we want to make sure that the products we are selling are the best possible combination of price and performance.  One of our main challenges then is to make sure that each growth factor we have is able to function correctly in a specific biological assay. That may sound simple enough, but given the large number of roles that each growth factor can play and the variety of different types of factors that researchers demand, it’s not as straightforward as it may seem. For this blog post we will go through an example of the biological assay we use to test our FGF’s, a mitogenic assay of BaF3 cells to determine the ED50.

After the recombinant FGF has been produced by the E. coli cells, purified, then lyophilized, we want to make sure the protein we produced is functioning correctly and there weren’t any issues during production. First we need to have our BaF3 cells produce the necessary receptor proteins on their membranes. Certain FGF’s bind more efficiently to different FGF receptor proteins, so we make sure to test a few different FGFR’s to make sure our protein is binding correctly. The best way to control for receptor presence is to transfect the cells with an expression vector containing the necessary receptor, and select with an antibiotic specific to that plasmid.  Once the cells are subcloned and are expressing the receptor proteins, we then start the proliferation assay. We aliquot cells into a 96well plate, then add a few different dilutions of either our newly produced FGF or a reference FGF. After the cells have had time to incubate with the additional FGF, we measure their mitogenic activity by adding [3H]thymidine, and after a few hours measure how much was incorporated using a scintillation counter. We are then able to tell if our cells had a significant increase in mitogenic activity after the addition of the FGF over a cell-only baseline, and how our new product compares to our reference standard.

If this data looks good, and the product passes our other quality controls (such as purity and endotoxin levels), then it is able to be sold to our customers. The biological assay will vary between growth factors, but the results are available in our certificate of analysis. Thanks for reading, and if you would like to know more about a specific product or our testing methods, please email techsupport@goldbio.com and we will try and provide you with as much information as we can.

Ornitz, D.M. et al. (1996). Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family. J Biol Chem 271, 15292-15297.

Category Code: 88261

Posted by Chris on April 11th, 2013  ⟩  0 comments

In the ever-evolving world of growth factors, the Cytokine class can potentially encompass nearly every single growth factor we know. Cytokines are typically small, cell-signaling proteins that are used extensively in intercellular communication. It is a family of regulators, involved in immunomodulation, hormone stimulation, hematopoiesis and embryogenesis. But scientists still disagree exactly how to properly categorize a “cytokine”. As they learn more and more about the world of growth factors vs. classic hormones, the clear-cut distinctions we're used to continue to fade away. Classic protein hormones generally circulate throughout the body in nanomolar concentrations, whereas cytokines typically circulate in the picomolar concentrations but some then magnify up to 1000-fold during trauma or infection. However, cytokines are nearly always produced by nucleated cells, whereas classic hormones are most often secreted from glands, such as the pituitary gland or the pancreas.

Two of the most studied groups of cytokines are interleukins (IL) and Colony Stimulating Factors (CSF). CSF2, often referred to as Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonly Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), is very closely associated with IL3 and IL5. While there is no significant amino acid sequence homology between the three, they exhibit a number of biological similarities. For instance, they all contain 4 α-helices and their tertiary structures are similar. They are also closely linked on the same chromosome in both human and mice (Chromosome 5 in humans and Chromosome11 in mice). Finally, CSF2 competes with IL3 and IL5 for binding to their respective receptors (Miyajima 1993).

CSF2 has been shown to be an integral signal factor (along with IGF-1, IL1 and activin) produced in the preimplantation development in a number of mammals, including humans, mice, pigs and cows. Treatment with CSF2 in cows during in vitro fertilization was able to significantly reduce pregnancy loss and enhanced embryonic compentence for posttransfer survival (Loureiro 2009). The lack of CSF2 in knockout mice have shown smaller birth size, fetal growth retardation, and increased mortality within the first 3 weeks.

CSF2 has also been tested in a recent phase II trial as an adjuvant treatment for post-pancreatic cancer patients (Lutz 2011). Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US and surgical removal of the pancreas remains the only viable solution to cure it. But the survival rate at 2 years post surgury remains only 42% and 5 years is only 15-20%! Lutz et al. developed an "irradiated CSF2 transfected allogeneic whole cell tumor lines for pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma immunotherapy". Lutz saw promising results over 6 months of post surgical treatment with the immunotherapy and suggested a future, multicenter phase II trial.

CSF3, also known as Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein which stimulates bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and then to release them into the blood stream. CSF3 is commonly produced by immune cells and naturally exists in two forms, a 180 amino acid protein and the more abundant and more active 174 amino acid protein. It has also been recently implicated as being in a class of peripherally circulating peptides which have the ability to alter CNS functions and structure (Diederich, 2009). Diederich showed that CSF3 reduced apoptosis and controled the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and activated several kinases (ERK1, 2 and 5) upstream of CREB (cAMP Response Element-Binding protein), indicating a prominent role in hippocampal function.

We'd love to discuss your particular growth factor needs and any additional growth factors you'd like to see on our website! If you have any questions, just email us at techsupport@goldbio.com.

Miyajima, A., et al. "Receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor." Blood 82 (1993): 1960-1974.

Loureiro, Bárbara, et al. "Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF-2) improves development and posttransfer survival of bovine embryos produced in vitro." Endocrinology 150.11 (2009): 5046-5054.

Robertson SA, Roberts CT, Farr KL, Dunn AR, Seamark RF. Fertility impairment in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient mice. Biological Reprodution 60 (1999): 251–261

Lutz, Eric, et al. "A lethally irradiated allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-secreting tumor vaccine for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a phase II trial of safety, efficacy, and immune activation." Annals of surgery 253.2 (2011): 328.

Diederich, Kai, et al. "Synergetic effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and cognitive training on spatial learning and survival of newborn hippocampal neurons." PloS one 4.4 (2009): e5303.

Category Code: 88221 79108

Posted by unknown on April 15th, 2013  ⟩  0 comments

Now that spring has finally sprung here in the Midwest, we’re able to take a look back at the first quarter of 2013 to see how we are doing. Over the first three months of this year, we shipped out more packages than ever before: more boxes, to more researchers, all over the world.  It’s humbling. We’ve been in this business for more than 25 years, and we continue to reach more and more people.  I want to express a sincere thank you from Dr. Gold, myself, and the entire Goldbio team.  It is a great feeling to know that researchers are continuing to trust us to provide them with premium, affordable chemicals and reagents.

Last week, a friend sent me a TED talk by Simon Sinek from September 2009.  The key point of his talk that I took away is that people don’t buy what you do; they buy why you do it. I couldn’t help but make the connection between this point and our company. Dr. Gold founded Gold Biotechnology in 1986, after his post doc, because he knew that the reagents he was using didn’t have to be so expensive. This journey to provide the market with low-cost reagents has really been about eliminating barriers to research. We’ve said it many times; by offering premium products at low price points, we are eliminating the barriers to the kind of research that can benefit us all.  That’s why we do it.  Research can be prohibitive for many reasons, but the cost of reagents does not have to be one of them.  We allow researchers to do more with their budget because they are not constrained by the cost of their reagents.  If people in labs all over the world are doing more, think of the discoveries that will come, discoveries that can and will change the world.  Maybe that sounds like a pie-in-the-sky dream, or some may say we drank the Kool-Aid®, but that’s why we’re in business.

Whenever we get the opportunity to meet with our customers, whether at trade shows or in visits to their labs, we love to open up about why we are in business. We certainly don’t mind showing off our knowledge about the products we sell, but we also love to tell our story and to tell people why we do what we do. If the number of reagents we are sending out is any indication, then you, the lab techs, grad students, post docs, and investigators, all hear us and agree with us. For that, we thank you.

Sincerely,

Bart Sacino

Director of Marketing, Gold Biotechnology, Inc.

Category Code: 88261