Dexamethasone is a fluorinated steroid and synthetic adrenal glucocorticoid which acts as an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agent in pharmaceuticals. It is a corticosteroid hormone receptor agonist to annexin A and glucocorticoid receptors. In cell signaling activity, it regulates the survival, growth, and differentiation of T-cells.
Dexamethasone inhibits multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). As an antineoplastic agent, it negatively modulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a molecule highly expressed in tumors. This substance is capable of interfering with NF-kB activation and apoptosis pathways. Dexamethasone can also increase antiemetic or anti-nausea effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and is given to chemotherapy patients to counteract such symptoms.
Medicinally, this chemical is classified with anti-inflammatories. It’s used to treat rheumatic diseases, autoimmune or immunological responses like allergies, asthma, swelling and allergic anaphylactic shock among others. It’s been incorporated into chemotherapy treatment for multiple myeloma. Endocrine and adrenal disorders are also treated with dexamethasone.
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