Antibiotics

Gold Biotechnology offers more than 200 unique antibiotic agents for use in a wide variety of cell culture, microbiology and molecular biology applications. Antibiotic agents are often clinically used to inhibit bacterial growth or kill bacteria as selection markers in agar or liquid media. The first commercially available antibiotics were developed in the 1930s, starting with the sulfonamides in 1932 and exploded later with the discovery of penicillin in 1942. Gold Biotechnology’s antibiotics cover 14 classes, including aminoglycosides, carbapenems, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines, as well as multiple generations of cephalosporin antibiotics.

Showing 81-100 of 206 items.

Clavulanic Acid Potassium w/ Cellulose (1:1)

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-890-1 1 g $ 158.00
C-890-5 5 g $ 525.00

Description

Clavulanic acid potassium (clavulanate potassium) is a β-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces clavuligerus, which irreversibly inactivates β-lactamase enzymes of β-lactam resistant organisms. This prevents these organisms from degrading β-lactam antibiotics. Clavulanic acid can be combined with antibiotics to increase their potency and is often combined with amoxicillin.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-890
CAS # 61177-45-5; 9004-34-6
MW 237.25 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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C-890-1 1 g $ 158.00
C-890-5 5 g $ 525.00

Clavulanic acid, lithium salt

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-405-100 100 mg $ 150.00

Description

Clavulanic acid, lithium salt or lithium clavulanate is an irreversible inhibitor of β-lactamase class A enzymes, which target β-lactam antibiotics. Clavulanic acid, lithium salt has been shown operate more efficiently with ceftazidime and amoxicillin antibiotics. Research has also shown an increase in AmpC β-lactamase expression when lithium clavulanate was administered in vitro to Enterobacteriaceae.

Clavulanic acid, lithium salt potentiates antibiotic effects of penicillin binding protein (PBP) inhibitors by preventing their deconstruction. Effective inhibition of β-lactamases by this compound expand antibiotic duration and lethality, making it useful for susceptibility tests or bacterial selection.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-405
CAS # 61177-44-4
MW 205.09 g/mol
Storage/Handling Store desiccated at 4°C.
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C-405-100 100 mg $ 150.00

Clindamycin Hydrochloride

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-175-10 10 g $ 43.00
C-175-25 25 g $ 78.00
C-175-50 50 g $ 125.00
C-175-100 100 g $ 218.00

Description

Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic primarily targeting gram-positive bacteria. It is also against anaerobic bacteria and protozoans such as Toxoplasma species. Clindamycin binds the 50s ribosomal subunit preventing ribosomal translocation, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. It has been shown to exhibit synergistic properties when combined with vancomycin.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-175
CAS # 21462-39-5
MW 461.44 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store desiccated at -20°C.
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C-175-10 10 g $ 43.00
C-175-25 25 g $ 78.00
C-175-50 50 g $ 125.00
C-175-100 100 g $ 218.00

Clofazimine

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-125-5 5 g $ 175.00

Description

Clofazimine is an active phenazine composed of an imino group and aromatic tricyclic heterocycles that is used as an antimycobacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound. It has been shown to be a potent in vivo antimycobacterial agent toward Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro to Mycobacterium avium.

As an anti-inflammatory, clofazimine inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation within neutrophils by inhibiting myeloperoxidase catalyzed reactions. The formed ROS are responsible for activating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 8 (IL8), which are inflammatory cytokines.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-125
CAS # 2030-63-9
MW 473.40 g/mol
Storage/Handling Store at room temperature.
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C-125-5 5 g $ 175.00

Cloxacillin Sodium

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-805-1 1 g $ 54.00
C-805-5 5 g $ 225.00

Description

Cloxacillin sodium is a sodium salt formed from a chlorinated semisynthetic derivative of penicillin. It has been shown to exhibit significant bactericidal activity against penicillin G-resistant staphylococci.

Penicillins are a type of β-lactam antibiotic consisting of a four-membered β-lactam ring bound to a five-membered thiazolidine ring. This two-ring system causes distortion of the β-lactam amide bond, resulting in decreased resonance stabilization and increased reactivity. β-lactams inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links within bacterial cell walls by targeting penicillin-binding proteins or PBPs. Consequently, the bacterial cell wall becomes weak and cytolysis occurs. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics occurs in the presence of cells containing plasmid encoded extended spectrum β-lactamases or ESBLs.

Antibiotics are often used in clinical in vitro tests known as antimicrobial susceptibility tests or ASTs to determine their efficacy against certain bacterial species. They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. ASTs decrease the risk of using an antibiotic against bacteria exhibiting resistance to it, and the results are used in clinical settings to determine which antibiotic(s) to prescribe for various infections.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-805
CAS # 7081-44-9
MW 475.88 g/mol
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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C-805-1 1 g $ 54.00
C-805-5 5 g $ 225.00

Colistin Sodium Methanesulfonate

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-920-1 1 g $ 140.00
C-920-5 5 g $ 546.00
C-920-10 10 g $ 1,050.00

Description

Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic effective against gram-negative bacteria. It has been used to permeabilize bacterial cell membranes and to study mannose-resistant haemagglutination. It has also been implicated in researching effective treatment for P. aeruginosa infections.

Colistin functions by targeting cell membranes and altering their permeability. Colistin sodium methanesulfonate (CMS) is considered an inactive prodrug, which means it is inactive until converted into colistin by cellular enzymes. GoldBio also offers Colistin sulfate (colistin), the end product of CMS, which does not require molecular conversion for antimicrobial properties.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-920
CAS # 8068-28-8
MW 1759.90 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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C-920-1 1 g $ 140.00
C-920-5 5 g $ 546.00
C-920-10 10 g $ 1,050.00

Colistin Sulfate, USP Grade

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-921-1 1 g $ 24.00
C-921-5 5 g $ 53.00
C-921-25 25 g $ 162.00
C-921-100G 100 g $ 392.00

Description

Colistin is a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic of the polymyxin family. It targets the cell membrane of bacteria, which ultimately leads to an altered cell permeability and cell death. It primarily targets gram-negative bacteria. Colistin has been used to study mannose-resistant haemagglutination, antibiotic resistance, and nephrotoxicity.

Colistin sulfate (colistin) is the end product of Colistin Sodium Methanesulfonate (CMS) and does not require molecular conversion for antimicrobial properties.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-921
CAS # 1264-72-8
MW 2801.26 g/mol
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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C-921-1 1 g $ 24.00
C-921-5 5 g $ 53.00
C-921-25 25 g $ 162.00
C-921-100G 100 g $ 392.00

Cryptotanshinone

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-735-10 10 mg $ 141.00
C-735-25 25 mg $ 313.00

Description

Cryptotanshinone is a quinoid diterpene extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and has been used as an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound. As an antibacterial agent, cryptotanshinone exhibits a broad range of activity against gram positive bacteria. In vivo studies of bactericidal mechanisms have shown cryptotanshinone to form superoxides which damage bacterial proteins, lipids and DNA.

Cryptotanshinone has also been used as an anti-inflammatory by inhibiting both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). The anti-inflammatory actions occur in downstream pathways, inhibiting p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation. Inhibition of these pathways and molecules will decrease pro-inflammatory pathway responses as well as cytokine synthesis.

As an anti-cancer agent, cryptotanshinone was used to inhibit cancer cell proliferation through the decreased expression of cyclin D1 or increase in cyclin A1 and cyclin B1 expression. It was also used to impede cancer motility by inhibiting complement component 5a protein (C5a), an analphylatoxin. Cryptotanshinone has also been used to reduce cell motility by inhibiting basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a promoter of angiogenesis. Apoptotic effects were also observed by cryptotanshinone when it was used to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 expression, which upregulates cell survival pathways.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-735
CAS # 35825-57-1
MW 296.36 g/mol
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C-735-10 10 mg $ 141.00
C-735-25 25 mg $ 313.00

D-Cycloserine

Catalog ID Size Pricing
C-970-1 1 g $ 68.00
C-970-5 5 g $ 251.00

Description

D-Cycloserine is an amino acid analog antibiotic effective against a wide variety of bacteria. It is commonly used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is suitable for use as a selection agent in a variety of isolation methods. D-cycloserine inhibits a variety of enzymes, is a partial NMDA receptor agonist, and may improve memory and cognition.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID C-970
CAS # 68-41-7
MW 102.09 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
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C-970-1 1 g $ 68.00
C-970-5 5 g $ 251.00

Difloxacin HCl

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-440-1 1 g $ 108.00
D-440-5 5 g $ 446.00

Description

Difloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic targeting gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, it has shown efficacy against Chlamydia trachomatis. Difloxacin has been used to study the effects of magnesium supplementation on quinolone-induced damage in animal models. Difloxacin HCl is freely soluble in aqueous solution.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-440
CAS # 91296-86-5
MW 435.85 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
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D-440-1 1 g $ 108.00
D-440-5 5 g $ 446.00

Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-450-25 25 g $ 114.00
D-450-100 100 g $ 285.00

Description

Dihydrostreptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic targeting gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium species. It is a derivative of streptomycin and commonly used to study aminoglycoside uptake. Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is freely soluble in aqueous solution.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-450
CAS # 5490-27-7
MW 730.71 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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D-450-25 25 g $ 114.00
D-450-100 100 g $ 285.00

Dihydrotanshinone I

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-800-10 10 mg $ 138.00
D-800-50 50 mg $ 485.00

Description

Dihydrotanshinone I is a compound extracted from the plant Salvie miltorrhiza Bunge. It is used as a gram positive antibacterial and anti-cancer compound. In both in vivo and in vitro research, dihydrotanshinone I generated reactive oxygen species which trigger apoptosis in bacteria and cancer cells.

Dihydrotanshinone I triggers apoptosis by directly damaging DNA and preventing further replication or by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK). This class of protein kinase engages apoptosis by activating caspases which are proteases that induce cell death. Dihydrotanshinone I has also been shown to inhibit cell growth past the G1 stage and prevent blood vessel formation by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) activity.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-800
CAS # 87205-99-0
MW 278.30 g/mol
UN Number 3077
Item Class 9
Group Number III
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D-800-10 10 mg $ 138.00
D-800-50 50 mg $ 485.00

Dimetridazole

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-460-100 100 g $ 419.00

Description

Dimetridazole is a nitroimidazole antibiotic useful against protozoa and bacteria. It has shown great efficacy against Campylobacter species. Dimetridazole has been useful in studying nitroimidazole mechanisms and is slightly soluble.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-460
CAS # 551-92-8
MW 141.13 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
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D-460-100 100 g $ 419.00

Dirithromycin

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-305-1 1 g $ 168.00

Description

Dirithromycin is a lipid soluble prodrug derivative of the macrolide antibiotic 9S-erythromycyclamine. It has a sizeable antibiotic activity range, being effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. It is highly insoluble in acidic and alkaline conditions and will spontaneously hydrolyze into the active erythromycyclamine form.

Macrolide antibiotics are composed of a macrocyclic lactone ring attached to one or more deoxy sugars. They inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by irreversibly binding the P site of the 50s ribosome, preventing peptide bond formation and translocation.

Antibiotics are often used in clinical in vitro tests known as antimicrobial susceptibility tests or ASTs to determine their efficacy against certain bacterial species. They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. ASTs decrease the risk of using an antibiotic against bacteria exhibiting resistance to it, and the results are used in clinical settings to determine which antibiotic(s) to prescribe for various infections.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-305
CAS # 62013-04-1
MW 835.07 g/mol
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D-305-1 1 g $ 168.00

Doxycycline Hyclate

Catalog ID Size Pricing
D-500-1 1 g $ 24.00
D-500-10 10 g $ 35.00
D-500-25 25 g $ 70.00
D-500-100 100 g $ 231.00

Description

Doxycycline hyclate is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic effective against bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. It is also a broad-spectrum inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Doxycycline hyclate is routinely used to select for cells containing the pcDNA3.1 resistance plasmid in cell line 293 at an effective concentration of 2 μg/mL. It is freely soluble in aqueous solution.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID D-500
CAS # 24390-14-5
MW 512.94 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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D-500-1 1 g $ 24.00
D-500-10 10 g $ 35.00
D-500-25 25 g $ 70.00
D-500-100 100 g $ 231.00

Enoxacin

Catalog ID Size Pricing
E-900-1 1 g $ 75.00

Description

Enoxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic compound that is markedly effective against gram negative bacteria. It has been used to study fluoroquinolone cross-resistence in Escehria coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Enoxacin is structurally related to nalidixic acid and inhibits DNA gyrase in bacteria.

Fluoroquinolones are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics that inhibit DNA synthesis. These antibiotics prevent unwinding of double-stranded DNA by binding DNA gyrase or DNA topoisomerase. By preventing the formation of single-stranded DNA, fluoroquinolones inhibit bacterial replication.

Antibiotics are often used in clinical in vitro tests known as antimicrobial susceptibility tests or ASTs to determine their efficacy against certain bacterial species. They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. ASTs decrease the risk of using an antibiotic against bacteria exhibiting resistance to it, and the results are used in clinical settings to determine which antibiotic(s) to prescribe for various infections.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID E-900
CAS # 74011-58-8
MW 347.36 g/mol
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E-900-1 1 g $ 75.00

Enramycin

Catalog ID Size Pricing
E-610-10 10 mg $ 197.00

Description

Enramycin is a polypeptide antibiotic that displays strong activity against gram positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is produced by the fungus Streptomyces fungicidus as Enramycin A (EA) and Enramycin B (EB), with this product containing an approximate 70:30 ratio of EA to EB. Enramycin has been effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis for bacterial cell walls.

Enramycin has been proposed to halt peptidoglycan synthesis by inhibiting transferase enzyme MurG or by inhibiting transglycosylase activity. Both inhibitory pathways entail enramycin binding to peptidoglycan precursors in a cell wall synthesis pathway. Some studies have shown that enramycin binds the precursor Lipid I and inhibits MurG. Enramycin has also been shown to bind the Lipid II and prevent transglycosylation of the precursor by tranglycosylases.

Antibiotics are often used in clinical in vitro tests known as antimicrobial susceptibility tests or ASTs to determine their efficacy against certain bacterial species. They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. ASTs decrease the risk of using an antibiotic against bacteria exhibiting resistance to it, and the results are used in clinical settings to determine which antibiotic(s) to prescribe for various infections.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID E-610
CAS # 11115-82-5
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E-610-10 10 mg $ 197.00

Enrofloxacin

Catalog ID Size Pricing
E-230-5 5 g $ 125.00
E-230-25 25 g $ 505.00

Description

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic targeting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as some Mycoplasma species. It has been useful in researching resistance to quinolones in Salmonella enterica, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and E. coli.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID E-230
CAS # 93106-60-6
MW 359.39 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
Storage/Handling Store at 4°C.
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E-230-5 5 g $ 125.00
E-230-25 25 g $ 505.00

Enrofloxacin HCl

Catalog ID Size Pricing
E-231-100 100 mg $ 125.00
E-231-500 500 mg $ 487.00
E-231-1 1 g $ 820.00

Description

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic targeting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as some Mycoplasma species. It has been useful in researching resistance to quinolones in Salmonella enterica, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and E. coli. It is freely soluble in aqueous solution.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID E-231
CAS # 112732-17-9
MW 395.86 g/mol
Grade MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
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E-231-100 100 mg $ 125.00
E-231-500 500 mg $ 487.00
E-231-1 1 g $ 820.00

Epigallocatechin gallate

Catalog ID Size Pricing
E-515-50 50 mg $ 72.00
E-515-100 100 mg $ 132.00

Description

EGCG has been shown to have a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram positive and some gram negative bacteria. It is used synergistically with penicillin binding protein inhibitors because both target peptidoglycan on the cell wall. While the exact mechanism is not known, research on EGCG activity indicates bacterial cell wall damage by direct peptidoglycan binding.

Product Specifications

Catalog ID E-515
CAS # 989-51-5
MW 458.37 g/mol
Storage/Handling Store desiccated at 4°C.
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E-515-50 50 mg $ 72.00
E-515-100 100 mg $ 132.00

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